In SDSMs, the cost of page misses is very expensive. To tune the performance for Omni/SCASH, consider using "threadprivate" as possible as you can. The threadprivate data is placed in the local memory so that the data can be referenced without any overhead.
The next keys are the data mapping and loop scheduling. In SDSMs, the home node allocation of pages affects the performance because the cost of consistency management is large comparing to hardware NUMA systems. In SCASH, a reference to a page in a remote home node causes page transfer through the network. When the home node of a page is different from the current node, the modified memory must be computed and transfered at barrier points to update the page in remote nodes. SCASH can deliver high performance for OpenMP program if the placement of data and computation is such that the data needed by each thread is local to the processor on which that thread is running.
In Omni/SCASH, the default data mapping is "block" mapping. The home node of large array objects is allocated in "block" distribution.
In OpenMP, a programmer can specify thread-parallel computation, but its memory model assumes a single uniform memory and provides no facilities for laying out data onto specific distinct memory space. And, no loop scheduling method is provided to schedule in a way that recognize the data access made by that iteration.
We have extended with a set of directives to allow the programmer to specify the placement of data and computation on the shared address space. In Fortran, Omni extensionsThe format of Omni extension directives are as follows:
In Fortran: !$OMN directive_names In C: #pragma omni directive_names
The data mapping directive specifies a mapping pattern of array objects in the address space. The data mapping can be applied only for the array data in global-scope.
Syntax in Fortran: !$OMN mapping(map_item,...) !$OMN mapping(alignee:align_target) map_item:= array_name(mapping_subscript,...) mapping_subscript := block | cyclic | cyclic(chunk)| * alignee:=array_name | array_name(align_subscript[,align_subscript,...) align_target := array_name | array_name(align_subscript,...) align_subscript := expr |* Syntax in C: #pragma omni mapping(map_item,...) #pragma omni mapping(alignee:align_target) map_item:= array_name[mapping_subscript]... mapping_subscript := block | cyclic | cyclic(chunk)| * alignee:=array_name | array_name[align_subscript]... align_target := array_name | array_name[align_subscript]... align_subscript := expr |*
chunk is an integer to specify the chunk size. expr must be a expression in the form of scale*identifier+offset. The expression of align_subscript in alignee must be an identifier associated with the identifier in align_target. The asterisk (*) means that the elements in any given column should be mapped in the same node. The block keyword for the second dimension means that for any given row, the array elements are mapped on each node in large blocks of approximately equal size. As a result, the array is divided into contiguous groups of columns, with home nodes for each group assigned to the same node. The keyword cyclic(n) can be used to specify cyclic mapping.
Note that, in the current implementation, data mapping for only one of the dimensions can be specified because our current OpenMP compiler supports single level parallelism. In the current implementation, scaling in align_target is not supported.
For example, the following directive specifies the block mapping with the second dimension of two dimensional array A:
In Fortran: dimension A(100,200) !$omn mapping(A(*,block)) In C: double A; #pragma omni mapping(A[block][*])
The following example uses the alignment mapping for array A.
In Fortran: dimension B(100,200) !$omn mapping(B:A) In C: double A; #pragma omni mapping(B:A)The array B have the same mapping.
The next example uses the alignment with an offset:
In Fortran: dimension C(200,200) !$omn mapping(C(*,i):A(*,i+1)) In C: double C; #pragma omni mapping(C[i][*]:A[i+1][*])The index identifier of alignee and align_target must be the same. In this example, the column of C[i][*] is mapped to the processor in where the column of A[i+1][*] is mapped for any i.
Since the consistency is maintained on page-basis in SCASH, only page-granularity consistency is supported. If mapping granularity is finer than the size of page, the mapping specification may not be effective.
If multiple mappings are specified to the same data in different files and different COMMON declarations in Fortran, one of the mapping can be effective, depending on the order of linking process.
The syntax is borrowed from High Performance Fortran(HPF). Different from HPF, however, each processor may have the entire copy of the array in the same shared address space. In this sense, this directive specifies ``mapping'' in the memory space, not ``distribution'' in HPF.
Syntax in Fortran: affinity_schedule_clause = schedule(affinity,affinity_target) affinity_schedule_target := array_name | array_name(align_subscript,...) affinity_schedule_subscript := expr |* Syntax in C: affinity_schedule_clause = schedule(affinity,affinity_target) affinity_schedule_target := array_name | array_name[affinity_schedule_subscript]... affinity_schedule_subscript := expr |*expr must be a expression in the form of scale*identifier+offset. In the current implementation, scale in the expression is not supported. In the following example, the iterations are assigned to the processor having the array element a[i][*] in the following code:
#pragma omp for schedule(affinity,A[i][*]) for(i = 1; i < 99; i++) for(j = 0; j < 200; j++) A[i][j] = ...;Note that, in the current implementation, mapping and loop scheduling for only one of the dimensions can be specified because our current OpenMP compiler supports single level parallelism.
In C programs, the memory allocator "malloc" is used. In Omni/SCASH, the standard memory allocator "malloc" allocates local memory, which cannot be shared. In order to allocate heap space in the shared memory of SCASH, You can use "ompsm_galloc" instead of "malloc".
#includeThe function allocates the heap memory of size bytes in the SCASH shared memory space, and return its address. The argment map specify how to map on the processors.
void * ompsm_galloc(int size, int map, int arg);